Held by Faculty of Law, UMY, IIU Malaysia and
International for Law and Sharia (IPOLS) FH UMY
24 June 2013
Honorable Rector, Universitas Muhammadiyah Yogyakarta, represented by Bapak Toni K.Haryadi as Director of International Cooperation of Universitas Muhammadiyah Yogyakarta
Honorable Dean, Faculty of Law, Universitas Muhammadiyah Yogyakarta, Dr. Trisno Raharjo
Honorable Director of International Program for Law and Sharia, Faculty of Law, Universitas Muhammadiyah Yogyakarta, Bapak Yordan Gunawan
Respected speakers in this international conference from Ahmad Ibrahim Kulliyyah of Laws International Islamic University Malaysia, ISID Gontor, Ponorogo Jawa Timur, Universitas Islam Indonesia, Universitas Respati Yogyakarta and Universitas Muhammadiyah Yogyakarta
Distinguished Guests, ladies and gentlemen,
First of all, I would like to express my gratitude to be here in front of all you. It is indeed a great honor for me to give a key note speech in this international student conference. The theme of the conference today is a very interesting and challenging. Some may say it is a sexy theme to be discussed.
To start this keynote, I would like to quote some data from survey pertaining to the progress of corruption eradication program in Indonesia after the political reform in 1998.
Corruption Perception Index
} Indonesia Rank 110 (200) with score 2,8
} The highest rank 9,3 (10): Denmark, Selandia Baru dan Singapore
} The lowest rank: 1,1 =) Somalia, 1,4 =) Myanmar, 1,4 =) Afghanistan
Score 9,3 ==) Singapore
5,5 ==) Brunei Darussalam
4,4 ==) Malaysia
3,5 ==) Thailand
2,8 ==) Indonesia
PERC Corruption Index 2011 in Asia Pacific
The first rank is Cambodia with score 9.27
Indonesia is at the second of the rank with score 9,25.
Philippines rank number 3 with score 8.90
Thailand rank is number 7 with score 7.55
Malaysia rank is number 9 with score 5.70
The lowest rank is Singapore with score 0.37
The Indonesia rank is decreasing, but the score is increasing.
2008 ==) 7,98
◦ 2009 ==) 8,32
◦ 2010 ==) 9,07
◦ 2011 ==) 9,25
Most Corrupt Institution Rank Peringkat
According to survey of Barometer Korupsi Global (BKG)-TI in 2009:
1. Parliament (DPR/DPRD) : 4,4
2. Judiciary (Institusi Peradilan) : 4,1
3. Public officers (Pegawai Publik) : 4,0
4. Political Party (Partai Politik) : 4,0
5. Business Sectors (Sektor Bisnis) : 3,2
6. Media : 2,3
In my opinion, this data is interesting to be analyzed by the speakers of the conference. Data tells us the fact that human beings are threatened by the practice of corruption in everywhere with various modus and strategy. The existence of corruption watch and anti corruption commission might create smarter corruptors. As entitled in one popular movie in Hongkong, “I corrupt all the cops, the corruptors may do everything to survive, even corrupt all legal apparatus, politician, and media. Does it also happen in our country? It can be yes or no!
However, Denny Indrayana, the vice minister of law and human rights, argues in his book, “Indonesia Optimis” that more democratic country is less corruption state. He further argues in his article that even there are bad story of agenda of anti-corruption, there are still good news of that. He points out some reason why Indonesia has to be optimistic in combating corruption.
First, After political reform, Indonesia is more democratic country. More democratic a country is better for anti corruption agenda.
Second, Indonesia is now having better regulation to fight against corruption. Indonesia has anti corruption act, special court for corruption case, Money Laundering Act, Witness Protection Act, Public Information Act and other lower regulation that support the agenda of combating corruption.
Third, Indonesia also has more complete institutions to fight against corruption.
Fourth, freedom of press has also the blessing for agenda of anti corruption movement since the press may control the progress and the process.
Fifth, public participation in agenda of combating corruption is more intensive and massive in controlling the agenda. We may say some of the element of civil society that involved in such activities such Indonesian Corruption Watch (ICW), Pusat Kajian Anti Korupsi UGM (Pukat UGM), Masyarakat Transparansi Indonesia, non governmental organizations, including student movement in many universities. I heard that today, students will launch a declaration of anti corruption. Of course, this is a very good action performed by students.
In a different perspective, Fahri Hamzah, young politician from Justice and Prosperous Party, in his book, “ Demokrasi, Transisi dan Korupsi”, states that even though Indonesia has anti corruption commission, there are some problems facing this institution. First, giving very huge authority to KPK is also potential to drive KPK being a super body institution which may threaten the right of citizen. Having the super body authority may lead KPK to be dangerous institution in the light of political competition among the political parties or business interest. Commissioners and investigators of KPK are not angels who may not be wrong.
Second, KPK has mislead its function from preventive action to more repressive action. Fahri argues that KPK has to reform and focus more on establishing a good system which prevent the practice of corruption while at the same time it become the trigger mechanism for other law enforcers such police and prosecutors. In fact, KPK seems more active in repressive agenda and therefore it failed to strengthen other institutions to work harder in combating corruption.
Distinguished guests, ladies and gentleman,
In this key note speech I would like to point out some relevant issues and questions that need to be discussed regarding the theme of the conference. First, it is worthy noted that corruption is an everlasting topic to be discussed. The question is why the issue of corruption and good governance seems to be a never ending topic to be discussed? Second, what make a country failed in combating corruption? Third, how does the country formulate a clear step and strong action in eradicating corruption?
Distinguished guest, Ladies and gentleman,
Allow me to go further to elaborate the questions above. Nicholas Tarling, in his introduction of book “ Corruption and Good Governance in Asia, stated that governance and corruption in Asia have been the subject of much recent writing, both before and after the crisis of 1997. Many papers were presented in many countries to seek a precise formula to fight against corruption. We do hope that the papers of the conference will also freshen and broaden discussion of the problems.
The conference has to seek and analyze what make a country failed in combating corruption. It is expected that the conference is able to highlight a clear map of problems in particular countries which is vary in approach, and have theoretical coherence. A clear map, of course, will determine the way outs.
The conference is also expected to give contribution to policy-making. Any action has to do to tackle corruption with more effective ways. It is indeed relevant also to evaluate the effectiveness of anti-corruption commission in combating corruption.
In addition, one of important agenda after the conference is that what can we do together to fight against corruption. What we have to do to reform our bureaucracy and government. Corruption cannot be eradicated only by having conference or discussion. Good governance could not be achieved only by giving statement. We need to do more actions together to combat corruption in order to save our nation.
Distinguished guest, Ladies and Gentleman,
To end my key note, allow me to express my appreciation to the Committee of the conference who prepared the conference with their best effort to perform best services to all participants. I do hope that this conference would give a meaningful contribution for our better society. Have a nice conference!
Wassalamu’alaikum Wr. Wb
Yogyakarta, 24 June 2013
Iwan Satriawan, SH., MCL
Lecturer of Faculty of Law, UMY
Ph.D Candidate at International Islamic University Malaysia.